What Is Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea? (And How Can It Affect You?)

Exercising everyday? Crushing your macros? Getting compliments on how “great” you look? You are the picture of health, and yet you haven’t had your period in nearly a year. How could this be? You’re doing everything right.

You clearly are healthy. Or are you?

Too Much of a Good Thing

About 3 to 5 percent of all women suffer from amenorrhea. Amenorrhea is the loss of menstrual cycle for more than three months (or an irregular cycle for six months) [1,2]. The most obvious symptom is lack of a period. There are a few different causes of amenorrhea. for exercising women the most common reason is functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA).

Half of exercising women have been found to have abnormal periods (compared to 4.2 percent in sedentary women) and 33.7 percent of exercising women were amenorrheic [3].

If Exercise Is Healthy Then What’s Going On?

Causes of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea include stress (psychological and physiological), dieting, vigorous exercise or chronic illness. There is a lot of evidence that show that exercising women with chronic energy deficiency end up with amenorrhea. This chronic energy deficiency can be from a lot of exercise, not enough calories or a combination of both from either exercise, or not enough food intake.

In fact, menstrual dysfunction in young exercising women is so common along with two other symptoms has a name “the female athlete triad” (more on that in a bit).

Technically there are three subtypes of FHA: weight loss-related, stress-related, and exercise-related amenorrhea. In many cases all three (weight loss, stress and exercise) combine to cause FHA, though usually all three are present in most women experiencing FHA.

Recent research suggest psychological stress, physiological stress (including low body fat) and genetics also play a role [2,4]. The key driver is caloric deficit where energy intake is inadequate to compensate for energy expenditure, however you might get there [5].

Biologically, it is very important that women (human females) don’t get pregnant if there isn’t enough food (a.k.a. calories) available to them. This is because humans have a hemochorial placenta, which means the fetus has control over the mother’s hormones — not the mother. That’s right: the fetus is driving the hormonal bus, and all it cares about is its survival. What this means for mothers-to-be is that, before getting pregnant, it’s important that they are in a situation where they can survive this pregnancy.

By the way, that fetal control is the reason why you get a period at all. Most other mammals reabsorb the endometrium, but not humans. We naturally get rid of it because any implanted fetuses that didn’t survive would still have some control over the maternal circulation [6].

What Is FHA, Exactly?

FHA is the loss of menstrual cycle due to a specific hormonal disruption. Did you know that the hormones that regulate ovulation are incredibly sensitive to energy balance — short term and even long term, through how much body fat do you have?

A Closer Look at Hormones

In both men and women, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the cooperative functioning of three endocrine glands. First, the hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). This tells the pituitary (anterior pituitary gland) to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). LH and FSH then act on the gonads (a.k.a. testes or ovaries).

In women, this triggers the production of estrogen (specifically E2 – estradiol) and progesterone — which we need to release a mature egg (ovulation) and to support a pregnancy. The whole thing is called the “female reproductive axis” or hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (HPO).

For proper regulation of the HPO axis, it’s not enough that GnRH is made and secreted. The rate at which GnRH is made and secreted is very important — this is called GnRH pulsing. The hypothalamus makes GnRH at a very specific rhythm that then goes on to tell your pituitary gland to make (or not make) LH or FSH.

If everything is working right, these pulses of GnRH (how often and how big) control the different phases of your menstrual cycle. Low-frequency (<1 pulse every 2-3 hours) triggers FSH release, and high frequency trigger (>1 pulse per hour) LH release (also in pulses). The pulses of GnRH that triggers LH pulses are key for regular menstrual cycles [7].

When Things Don’t Go As They Should

GnRH pulses seem to be very sensitive to environmental factors, and can be thrown off by fasting or caloric deficits. A few things regulate normal GnRH pulses, with kisspeptin (no really that’s what it’s called) being the key regulator.

Kisspeptin, a protein-like molecule that neurons use to communicate with each other (and get important stuff done), stimulates GnRH production in both sexes, and we know that it’s very sensitive to leptin, insulin, and ghrelin — hormones that regulate and react to hunger and satiety. Interestingly, females mammals have more kisspeptin than males. More kisspeptin neurons may mean greater sensitivity to changes in energy balance.

Low leptin (which happens with lower body fat) means less GnRH altogether as leptin stimulates GnRH. Low body fat through low leptin levels contribute to causing FHA.

What this means is that getting pregnant during times with limited foods was historically deadly for women. Interestingly humans are one a few mammals that cannot “pause” a pregnancy or terminate a pregnancy when there’s not enough food.

So the key for women is not to get pregnant in times when food is lacking. This is achieved by not having a menstrual cycle so an egg isn’t around to get fertilized.

Health Implications of FHA

“Who cares? It’s kinda nice not having my period!”

The most obvious side effect is you’re not having your period and for most women this isn’t at all a problem — it’s kind of a benefit. Another pretty effect of amenorrhea is that if you’re not having a period, you’re not ovulating, so you’re not fertile and you can’t get pregnant. Again this might not be seen as a bad thing for some women.

However, besides reproductive health, other aspects of women’s health are compromised including the skeletal system, the cardiovascular system, and psychological well-being [2].

Skeletal (Bone) Health Considerations

If your reproductive health isn’t a concern for you, another negative consequence of functional amenorrhea is decreased bone mineral density that increases your risk of osteoporosis and risk of fractures if amenorrhea occurs on a relatively long term.

This loss of bone mineral density along with FHA and low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder) in female athletes is called “the female athlete triad” and has been studied since 1997.

Cardiovascular Health Considerations

Overall, estrogen (specifically estradiol) is cardioprotective, which is why pre-menopausal women have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to men and postmenopausal women.

Lower levels of estrogen caused by FHA are linked to compromised vascular function and altered blood lipid profile [2], since coronary and peripheral blood vessels contain estrogen receptors that make these vessels responsive to estrogen and estrogen a key regulator in healthy vascular function.

Women with FHA have a blood lipid profile that’s linked to higher risk of heart disease, including higher total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein B and higher triglycerides [2].

Other hormonal imbalances include high cortisol, low insulin, low insulin-like growth factors, (IGF-1) and low triiodothyronine  (T3 – a thyroid hormone) [2,8].

Psychological Well-Being

Along with the physiological health issues, FHA is associated to a greater chance of having depression and anxiety. It’s unclear if FHA contributes to causing depression and anxiety or if depression and anxiety contribute to causing FHA [9,10].

Women with FHA also have lower scores on measures of sexual function that looked at sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction or enjoyment of sexual activities [9].

What to Do?

The good news is that FHA is reversible.

For most women, increasing nutrient-dense foods, decreasing caloric deficit (increasing total calories taken in and decreasing calorie expended), decreasing intense exercise and decreasing overall stress reverses FHA.

References

  1. Klein DA, Poth MA, Amenorrhea: an approach to diagnosis and management, American Family Physician, June 2013. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939500
  2. Meczekalski B, Katulski K, Czyzyk A, Podfigurna-Stopa A, Maciejewska-Jeske M, Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its influence on women’s health, Journal of endocrinological investigation, November 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25201001
  3. De Souza MJ, Toombs RJ, Scheid JL, O’Donnell E, West SL, Williams NI, High Prevalence of Subtle and Severe Menstrual Disturbances in Exercising Women: Confirmation Using Daily Hormone Measures, Human Reproduction, February 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19945961
  4. Caronia LM, Martin C, Welt CK, Sykiotis GP, Quinton R, Thambundit A, Avbelj M, et al., A Genetic Basis for Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, The New England Journal of Medicine, January 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247312
  5. De Souza MJ, Williams NI, Physiological Aspects and Clinical Sequelae of Energy Deficiency and Hypoestrogenism in Exercising Women, Human Reproduction Update, October 2004. https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article/10/5/433/768946
  6. Emera D, Romero R, Wagner G, The Evolution of Menstruation: A New Model for Genetic Assimilation, BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, January 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22057551
  7. Tsutsumi R, Webster NJ, GnRH Pulsatility, the Pituitary Response and Reproductive Dysfunction, Endocrine Journal, 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609045
  8. Berga SL, Daniels TL, Giles DE, Women with Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea but Not Other Forms of Anovulation Display Amplified Cortisol Concentrations, Fertility and Sterility, June 1997. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9176439
  9. Dundon CM, Rellini AH, Tonani S, Santamaria V, Nappi R, Mood Disorders and Sexual Functioning in Women with Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Fertility and Sterility, November 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206928
  10. Marcus MD, Loucks TL, Berga SL, Psychological Correlates of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Fertility and Sterility, August 2001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11476778

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Sexual Harassment in Life and in the Fitness Industry

Let’s talk about sex… ual harassment.

When speaking of sexual harassment, some of the more blatant and alarming examples of it tend to jump into mind.

  • The construction worker who hollers highly inappropriate remarks at female passersby.
  • The perverted teacher who demands sexual favors in exchange for better grades.
  • The leering boss who makes sexual advances at female employees.
  • The man who touches, grabs, gropes, or kisses a woman against her will.

But sexual harassment is not this straightforward.

For starters, although it is the higher trend, sexual harassment does not exclusively happen from man to woman. Anyone could be a victim of sexual harassment including other men, gay, queer and non-binary folks, people in positions of power, educated and uneducated individuals, poor or wealthy, of any culture and ethnic background, sexual orientation, physical constitution, and socioeconomic standing. And, likewise, anyone could be a perpetrator.

Societal norms change and shift and they have done so across the world and for centuries; some behaviors that previously would have gone unchallenged are now being pinpointed as unacceptable, and this is a good thing. As we know better, we do better.

What Is Sexual Harassment?

Sexual harassment is defined as unwanted physical or verbal advances imposed on a person. This definition is broad, and make no mistake, the varied expressions of sexual harassment can be extremely ample and diverse.

It is important to note that sexual harassment, more often than not, is actually not about sex itself. It is not about attraction, or desire, or romanticism. Sexual harassment is most often demeaning to the recipient; it looks like bullying and is an act of intimidation. It is insulting and dehumanizing.

One key concept that many fail to comprehend before diving into a discussion of sexual harassment is this:

Sexual harassment is dependent on individual interpretation, as perceived by the recipient.

What is normal and acceptable for one can be the worst form of harassment for another because we are all unique individuals, shaped by our own life experiences, upbringing, culture, language, family, sets of values and personal beliefs. And this is what makes sexual harassment a tricky topic: we tend to forget that our thoughts, rules, and interpretations can differ so vastly from other people’s.

 

Because of all of the above, sexual harassment cannot be narrowly defined.

Examples of Sexual Harassment

The following are all examples of sexual harassment, as described by the Ontario Human Rights Commission [1].

  • Demanding hugs.
  • Invading personal space.
  • Initiating unnecessary physical contact,including unwanted touching,
  • Using derogatory language and/or comments toward women (or men, depending on the circumstances), sex-specific derogatory names.
  • Leering or staring inappropriately.
  • Making gender-related comments about a person’s physical characteristics or mannerisms.
  • Engaging in comments or conduct relating to a person’s perceived non-conformity with a sex-role stereotype
  • Displaying or circulating pornography, sexual pictures or cartoons, sexually explicit graffiti, or other sexual images (including online)
  • Making sexual jokes, including circulating written sexual jokes (e.g. by email)
  • Using rough and vulgar humour or language related to gender
  • Bullying a person through sexual or gender-related comment or conduct
  • Spreading sexual rumours (including online).
  • Making suggestive or offensive remarks or innuendo about members of a specific gender.
  • Engaging in gender-related verbal abuse, threats, or taunting.
  • Bragging about sexual prowess.
  • Demanding dates or sexual favors.
  • Making propositions of physical intimacy.
  • Asking questions or having discussions about sexual activities.
  • Requiring an employee to dress in a sexualized or gender-specific way.
  • Engaging in paternalistic behaviour based on gender which a person feels undermines their status or position of responsibility.
  • Using threats to penalize or otherwise punish a person who refuses to comply with sexual advances (known as reprisal).

Furthermore, “It should be understood that some types of comments or behavior are unwelcome based on the response of the person subjected to the behavior, even when the person does not explicitly object.  An example could be a person withdrawing, or walking away in disgust after a co-worker has asked sexual questions.” [1]

This is to say, the recipient doesn’t even have to verbalize their displeasure — other more subtle forms of objection are sufficient.

For some people, being asked to smile is cute and funny; for a lot of people, being asked to smile is uncomfortable or insulting.

For some people, being called “beautiful” from a passing car is a compliment; for other people, being called “beautiful” from a passing car is disrespectful and vulgar.

For some people, being touched without invitation could be a turn on; for most people, being touched without invitation is invasive, rude, and/or imposing.

You may be thinking, “Oh come on! Calling someone “beautiful” may come across as vulgar, but is it really harassment?” and the answer to that is, if the person on the receiving end deems it as harassment, then yes, yes it is.

“But it’s just innocent flirting!
Not if for the other person it’s not.

But I’ve done it before and it worked like a charm!
Because to that specific person it was a welcomed action. Do not, however, make the mistake of assuming it will be the same for all.

Considering the individuality involved in what makes harassment harassment, it would be near impossible for us to guess if for a particular person, on a particular day, a specific action or phrase will qualify as sexual harassment. And it is because of this that our default assumption must be that other people are not seeking to be approached.

“But how will couples meet?! How will they fall in love if he doesn’t follow her, vy for her attention, insist to get her name, and show up uninvited at the end of her work shift?”

Just so we’re clear, romantic comedies are very poor examples of true romanticism and relationships. They are problematic because they tend to showcase harassment as a positive attribute, and they reinforce harmful gender stereotypes like the “wilting flower” of a woman who is saying no but must be meaning yes, or the “determined” guy who won her over because he refused to listen to her rejections.

Most romantic comedies are essentially stories in which a man being a harasser paid off. Makes no wonder we’re confused!

Until we let go of the Hollywood-esque and misrepresented notion of romantic love as a tug-of-war of the wills in which the man pushes past the woman’s boundaries in order to win her affections, can we start having an honest conversation about sexual harassment and how to put an end to it.

Then, we could tackle gender norms that teach women they should “play hard to get” and men to be “pursuers.” We could do away with games of “saying No when we want to say Yes,” (lest you want to be deemed as easy or a slut), and stop teaching young men that “any woman worth having will be difficult to get.”

Can you imagine a world in which we could all be honest in expressing our needs and desires without shame, while remaining completely respectful of others’ boundaries and wishes?

We can. And it is this world we strive for.

Sexual Harassment in the Fitness Industry

The fitness industry is rampant with sexual harassment.

It is an industry in which physical appearance is noted, highlighted, and commented upon. It is an industry that has been sexualized by how we view the outfits worn and amount of clothes used, the bodies of those who work in it, and so much more.

  • Clients propositioning trainers.
  • Trainers propositioning clients.
  • Gym owners or bosses playing power dynamics with their subordinates.
  • Female trainers being required to wear more revealing outfits than their male counterparts.
  • Inappropriate commenting or sexualizing other trainers or clients.
  • Experts and speakers whose egos are so inflated they feel entitled to objectify others.
  • “Locker room talk” and all its variables…

We’ve seen it happen some time or another. And it is our collective duty to make it stop.

Ending Sexual Harassment

When harassment is not addressed, it is more likely to increase in magnitude and severity. It is everyone’s responsibility to prevent and put a stop to it.

1. Educate Yourself

Starting with the list above, become familiar with the different faces of sexual harassment. Take some time to learn about other people’s life experiences, and imagining scenarios in which the most banal (to you) of those examples could feel like harassment.

In other words, seek to understand others and their point of view. This is a powerful practice because suddenly others’ complaints don’t seem so silly or superficial.

In some cases there will be dramatic and clear reasons why, for example, a woman refuses a man’s advances; something like the fact that she just came out of an abusive relationship. For most people this would be a very clear and strong reason.

However, sometimes the legitimate reason she will refuse advances is simply because she doesn’t want them. And that’s it. And that’s enough. And that’s a perfectly valid reason to leave her be, no further explanations needed.

Once again: we are all different, want different things, like different things, and we are allowed to accept or decline attention in our own free will.

2. Call It Out

We can no longer afford to turn a blind eye when witnessing sexual harassment. “From a human rights perspective, it is not acceptable to choose to stay unaware of sexual harassment” [1].

We are required to speak up and act because that is the right thing to do, and also because it is our obligation.

“There is a clear human rights duty not to condone or further a discriminatory act that has already happened. To do so would extend or continue the life of the initial discriminatory act. This duty extends to people who, while not the main actors, are drawn into a discriminatory situation…” [1]. Bystanders no more.

Calling out sexual harassment may include confronting your male friends when they speak about women a certain way. It could mean you file a co-complaint in support of a victim when you witnessed them being harassed. It could also mean directly interfering in a harassment situation in the moment it is occurring.

Calling out sexual harassment may also mean you are the victim and are choosing to speak up, file a complaint, press charges, or take any other action needed. We recognize at times this may not be safe to do, and in those instances we recommend and hope you get support not only from loved ones, but also perhaps from a professional like a counselor. You don’t have to deal with this alone.

3. Take a Stand

No matter where you live or who you are, you can do plenty to help put an end to sexual harassment. We have given you some ideas above, but the most important factor will depend on you and your decision to take action.

If you are in a position of power, for example as a gym owner or company CEO, you must make ending sexual harassment your priority. In companies and organizations change has to come from the top, and not only with little handouts or mini workshops, but with clear examples of zero tolerance for sexual harassment, including putting time and thoughtful effort into prevention, and taking immediate action when a situation occurs. What is your organization’s action plan in case harassment occurs? If you don’t have one you are exposing yourself, your organization, and the potential victims to a lot of difficulty.

Even if you are not in a position of power, you have a circle of influence; we all do. Your circle of influence is comprised by your immediate family and friends, your acquaintances, co-workers, neighbors, extended family, service providers, clients, and other connections.

Take a stand within your circle of influence by having open conversations about sexual harassment and making your stance known.

Aim to become a person who others can come to for help in case they have been harassed. You can accomplish this not so much by announcing yourself as an ally or support, but by matching your actions to your value system:

  • Refrain from putting into question victims of sexual abuse or harassment you see on the media.
  • Remain open and welcoming of victims’ narratives.
  • Openly challenge those who automatically disregard a victim’s story.

Actions, actions, actions.

Believe the Victim

There tends to be a knee-jerk reaction in hesitance to trust a victim’s word “just in case” she’s lying, even though statistically the incidences of false reporting of sexual harassment are very low [2].

When having to choose between believing a woman’s word versus believing the word of a man who holds a higher position or rank, has more power, influence, wealth, popularity, or social and professional recognition or connections, guess who is most likely to be given the benefit of the doubt? The accused man, of course. This is why oftentimes women refuse to report incidences of sexual harassment: they know nothing will be done about it.

Sexual harassment is very difficult to prove because without witnesses or electronic proof such as emails, pictures, or video, it is nothing but a game of “he said, she said.” And, as stated above, the victim — most often a woman — is likely to be ignored.

What can you do to remedy this situation? Believe the victim.

Don’t just state your support, act on it. Follow through with concrete actions to:

  • Bring the harassment to light making sure others are made aware of the situation.
  • Publicly reject the harasser’s actions.
  • Ensure the harasser faces clear consequences and repercussions.

One important thing to remember is this: sexual harassment can be very damaging to the victim. It can affect a person mentally, emotionally, and financially. For the victim, having to deal with harassment can unleash a number of symptoms or effects, such as:

  • Creating or increasing stress, anxiousness, anxiety or depression.
  • Disrupting sleep patterns and ability to rest and recover.
  • Impacting appetite, digestion, and overall wellness.
  • Creating or exacerbating shoulder and/or back pain.
  • Fostering feelings of isolation, anger, sadness, self-doubt, having been wronged.
  • Losing work due to inability to focus.
  • Losing income due to time and energy spent on managing the aftereffects of harassment.

Perhaps next time we are tempted to think a harasser “does not deserve” consequences to their actions we can keep in mind that the above repercussions are tangible and real in a victim’s life.

Sexual harassment is not innocent. It is not “guys being guys.” It is not a joke, it is not something done for fun or entertainment. Sexual harassment is serious, damaging and with the potential to negatively impact the lives of victims, harassers, and those involved in perpetuating it. It is time for it to end.

References

  1. Ontario Human Rights Commission, Policy on preventing sexual and gender-based harassment. http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/policy-preventing-sexual-and-gender-based-harassment-0
  2. National Sexual Violence Resource Center, False Reporting Overview, https://www.nsvrc.org/sites/default/files/Publications_NSVRC_Overview_False-Reporting.pdf

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Representation Matters: Eating Disorders Aren’t Just for White Girls

When you think about eating disorders what is the image that comes to mind? Is it one of teenaged vanity? Of emaciated white women agonizing in front of the mirror or hunched over the toilet?

For a long time, the same image of eating disorders was (and for the most part, still is) perpetuated by the media. That image of “too-thin” fashion models, ballerinas and actresses. The one of Karen Carpenter or of Lily Collins in To The Bone. When we Google “eating disorder,” it’s this same image that comes up again and again and while it’s great that we largely becoming more open to the conversation about eating disorders, the conversation shouldn’t start and stop at white women.

I am a woman of color with an eating disorder. I have been in recovery for many years now and my journey has not been without obstacles.

My Own Story

I am an immigrant; in my culture, mental health issues and mental illness are overlooked and often met with extreme amounts of denial and shame. Because of this, I had to seek out treatment and navigate my recovery journey on my own, without the support of my family.

I was not able to confide in my family when I was in treatment, nor was I able to access early interventions as a youth, the uniquely vulnerable situation that young immigrants can be faced with despite the love of their parents.

This was not because they didn’t love me. They loved me in every way they knew how. They just didn’t understand because what I needed from them was lost in translation or simply did not exist in their experience back home.

Representation for people who look like me is scarce, which makes it difficult to identify with any messages from the media, even ones that are trying to help.

Often when I hear people speak at eating disorder events, read eating disorder books and articles or watch movies and documentaries, stories do not resonate with me. This is because often, those who are empowered enough to speak publicly about their illnesses come from privileged backgrounds and support from their families. These people have a very different experience with recovery from mine.

For four years, I volunteered and worked in the eating disorder community. In that time, I often found myself to be the only racialized person in the room.

The vast majority of mental health professionals, organizational management, researchers, board directors were, and still are white folks, mostly white women. These are the people who are in charge of the research, treatment and funding. There is little to no research available on the eating-disorder experiences of people of color and marginalized populations in Canada.

All of the mental health professionals I have encountered have been privileged, white women with good intentions but no real grasp on the impact of racism and oppression. While they are often more than willing to discuss family dynamics, they often shy away from unpacking how my experience of covert and overt racism throughout childhood has impacted my body image and self-esteem.

Treatment for eating disorders will always be incomplete without culturally-sensitive body image discussions and interventions.

Being unable to unpack all of the trauma is problematic when trying to heal and navigate the medical system. (I should probably also note that the most recommended, “go-to” book about eating disorders in women of color was written by a white woman.)

Some Crucial Steps Toward Inclusion

If we are going to challenge white supremacy in the world of eating disorders, there are steps we need to take towards true inclusion.

For eating disorder advocates:

Advocate for People From All Backgrounds

Do the people in the room all have the same story, come from the same background and have the same access to support and resources? Eating disorders affect people from all walks of life and there is no hierarchy of who is more deserving of help and healing.

Include Eating Disorders Other Than Anorexia

Bulimia, Binge Eating Disorder, OSFED, ARFID etc. are underrepresented and affect many more people than Anorexia yet are not as widely discussed or supported. People struggling with these illnesses have valid experiences and should be advocated for with the same gusto.

Consider What Is Asked of Families

Understand that not all families have the same ability to provide the care and support that is asked for by the western medical system.

Immigrant families, families from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, families that have complicated parental relationships all have children that experience eating disorders. Not everyone has the privilege to take time off of work and in some cases that can mean the difference between accessing treatment for your child or putting a roof over their head.

And for the eating disorder organizations working towards more inclusion:

Avoid the Tokenization Trap

Don’t tokenize marginalized people for campaigns or events in order to appear more inclusive.

Too many times I have felt included in initiatives just to give the illusion of inclusivity and diversity. Symbolic inclusion isn’t inclusion.

Minority groups are not an accessory you can flaunt to make your work look more meaningful.

Involve Those You Wish to Highlight

When working on “diversity” driven initiatives, involve actual members of the minority populations that you want to highlight.

The experts of any story are those who have lived it themselves.

Employ Marginalized Folks in Key Positions

Pay the marginalized folks that you are collaborating with. Have marginalized folks on your payroll. Have them in leadership positions at your organization. Include them on your board of directors.

Take the time to think about who benefits the most (professionally and financially) from the work that you create. Using diverse voices to amplify your work and not remunerating those contributors is exploitative. It’s thievery.

Create the Right Platforms

So you’ve waved the diversity flag and claim to be inclusive. Are you making it a reality within your organization? What is stopping you from making the space necessary in order for marginalized voices to be adequately heard?

Strive for inclusion by not only highlighting the issues that marginalized people face but by creating space for marginalized people to have a platform.


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Speak Up: Identifying Rape Culture in Everyday Conversation

You can find it in this 2011 New York Times description of an 11-year-old girl who was horrifically gang raped: “she dressed older than her age, wearing makeup and fashions more appropriate to a woman in her 20s.”

You can find it in this story shared by Girls Gone Strong co-founder Molly Galbraith: “When I was 11 years old, two men in their thirties followed me around the mall until I alerted security that I was scared. I was told that I shouldn’t have worn such short shorts.”

You can find it in dismissals of powerful men bragging about sexual assault as “just locker room talk.”

If you’ve spent any time discussing sexual violence, whether in person or online, you’ve likely heard statements like the above — ones that find a way to place blame on the victims or survivors* of sexual assault, which at the same time, alleviate blame from the perpetrators. Harmful statements like these are examples of rape culture in everyday conversation.

*A note on the terms victim and survivor in this article: Words have power. The word victim is often used to describe someone who has experienced sexual assault, but many women prefer to call themselves survivors rather than victims. Proponents of using survivor feel that it is an active term implying a journey of healing, whereas victim might conjure up passivity and pity. Some people do choose to use the term victim, and it is a useful term when we’re talking about a crime that’s been committed (since sexual assault is always a crime). Taking my example from RAINN, I use both interchangeably [1].

What is Rape Culture?

The term “rape culture” was first coined by the New York Radical Feminists in 1974, in a publication called Rape: The First Sourcebook for Women [2]. It refers to social conditioning that we collectively experience as a culture in which sexual violence is tolerated, downplayed, excused, normalized, joked about, and even promoted. It serves to excuse the actions of perpetrators and blame victims at the same time.

In Transforming A Rape Culture, Emilie Buchwald describes it as “a complex set of beliefs that encourage male sexual aggression and supports violence against women.” In a rape culture, Buchwald writes, women understand they are under a constant threat that can range “from sexual remarks to sexual touching to rape itself.” She adds that a rape culture treats sexual violence against women as “the norm” [3].

Though the majority of sexual violence is committed by men against women and usually discussed in these terms, it’s important to note that this isn’t the only way sexual violence occurs. Men can be victims and survivors. Transgender and nonbinary people experience sexual violence at high rates. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer people can also experience sexual assault in the context of their relationships [4].

And rape culture doesn’t just exist in individuals who express victim-blaming opinions, it also exists in the larger systems and structures in our society.

Examples include:

  • Legal systems where rapists may experience very light penalties, and where victims’ clothing and sexual histories are scrutinized.
  • Gratuitous gendered, sexualized violence in movies and pop culture.
  • Common values and beliefs we place on masculinity and femininity, such as expecting masculine people to be sexually aggressive and to “score,” and expecting feminine people to be submissive, chaste, and to not desire much sex.
  • Prevention efforts that only focus on victims. (It isn’t wrong to tell women to watch out for each other and to keep an eye on their drinks. But it’s wrong when this is the sole focus of rape prevention efforts, rather than focusing on predatory behavior and teaching people about consent and boundaries.)

Rachel DiBella, LICSW, is a psychotherapist, prevention specialist, and professor who has been doing sexual violence prevention and response work on college campuses, in healthcare, and in the legal field for more than a decade. She currently oversees sexual violence prevention programming at a Boston University and points out that rape culture includes more than just individual instances of rape and assault.

Rape culture also includes “the pervasive threat that many of us walk with each day” and how that threat “limits us in every way.” She explains, “Without even being aware of it, many of us — people of all genders, and especially trans folks, women of color and LGBQ folks — arrange our lives around how we can avoid harassment.” DiBella also points out that avoidance behaviors are “major diagnostic features of trauma” and that rape culture afflicts our society “with a collective sense of trauma.”

Examples of Rape Culture in Everyday Conversation

There are many ways in which rape culture shows up in everyday conversation — even used by folks who would say that they’re against rape and sexual violence. The language is so pervasive that we may not even realize we’re using it. Here are some common examples:

The Normalization of Men as Predators

“Boys will be boys.”
“That’s just locker room talk.”
“He was just acting like a red-blooded American male.”

Slut Shaming of Victims or Survivors

“Did you see what she was wearing? She clearly wanted attention.”
“How much did she drink?”
“She led them on.”
“She posts a lot of sexual selfies, what does she expect?”
“She’s ugly and lucky she got the attention.”

Implying There Is a “Perfect” Way to Be a Victim

“Why didn’t she fight them off in exactly XYZ way?”
“Why did she wait so long to come forward?”
“Why didn’t they tell anyone?”
“She should have done (fill in the blank).”

Painting Victims and Survivors as Liars and Schemers

Disbelieving victims even when many come forward against the same perpetrator.

“She’s just in it for the money.”
“These women want to get famous.”

Using the Term “Rape” to Mean Something Other Than Sexual Violence

“That test raped me.”
“We totally raped that other team!”

Making Rape Jokes

Any joke where objectifying women or rape is the punchline is problematic.

Some feminists such as Lindy West have made a distinction between jokes that “punch down” at the people with less power (victims), and jokes that “punch up” at people with more power (perpetrators). When it comes to rape jokes, any joke that punches down at a victim or survivor normalizes rape culture.

Wishing Rape on Someone, Including on Rapists as a Punishment

We hear this one often — in jokes about the rape and sexual violence that occurs in prisons, and even as a suggested punishment to rapists.

“Just wait until he gets to jail and gets what’s coming to him.”

It’s also very common for women and other marginalized folks to experience rape threats as a go-to form of online harassment. A poll by Amnesty International found that 29 percent of American women had experienced threats of sexual violence against them as a result of men disagreeing with opinions that they’d publicly expressed. The threats of sexual violence are often compounded by harassment targeting other aspects of the victim’s identity, such as racism or transphobia [5].

The Concept of the “Friend Zone”

This term has been easily accepted into our culture, but what is it really saying?

It’s mostly used on women and implies that women owe men sexual attention. This term shames women for exercising their right to say “no,” a right that shouldn’t be questioned.

Worrying More About the Ramifications for the Perpetrator Than the Victim

“That poor boy’s life will be ruined.”
“It would be a shame if he lost that scholarship or had a record.”
“It’s like men can’t even talk to women anymore!”

Catcalling

Catcalling someone upholds the idea that (primarily) women are objects to be desired and that it’s OK to objectify us. Minimizing catcalling as harmless, as a part of life that we should accept, or even as complimentary, implies that catcallers aren’t doing anything wrong.

How Does This Language Harm Us?

Besides excusing perpetrators and blaming victims, this language can cause actual violence to escalate. Some of the above examples focus on myths about rape — false beliefs that are used to shift blame from a perpetrator to a victim. Rape myths are prevalent in our society, and the belief in rape myths has been strongly associated with “hostile attitudes and behaviors toward women” and may “contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape” [6].

The use of such language upholds and promotes rape culture as normal. According to Rachel DiBella, when we fail to think critically about misogyny and violence in everyday conversation, a process happens. We may not recognize how problematic the conversation is, which “reifies our inability to see rape culture.” When we can’t see rape culture, she says, “we’re vulnerable to reproducing it ourselves.” She points to a study that suggests that “when people causing harm don’t get called out by their peers, they misperceive that silence as approval…and it continues, and it escalates” [7].

And finally, says DiBella, when language promoting rape culture escalates, our tolerance for it also grows: “We have a higher threshold and ability to tolerate more and more disturbing content.” This escalation, in turn, can bring actual violence into being [8].

What Can You Do?

We all have a responsibility when it comes to combating (and hopefully dismantling) rape culture. Here’s where you can start.

Check Yourself First

Even if you belong to a population that commonly experiences sexual violence, and even if you are a survivor, you may still use language that supports rape culture.

Often this serves as an attempt to distance ourselves from other folks who have experienced sexual violence. If we say things like “She should have done something differently to avoid rape,” what we are really saying is “I would have avoided rape/ it would not have happened to me.

When we closely examine such statements, they are methods of-self protection, but they blame the victim and do nothing to actually protect any of us. Make sure that your own words are not contributing to the normalization of sexual violence.

Realize That Rape Survivors and Victims Are Listening

Chances are good that you or someone close to you has experienced sexual violence. If your casual comments blame victims and excuse perpetrators, know that survivors are listening, which may add shame and confusion to how they make sense of their experience. This may also make the difference for them between who to trust and who not to trust when it comes to sharing about their experience.

Challenge the Words of Others

Survivors are not only listening to what you say, but to how you respond when you hear rape culture in casual conversation. Speak up and challenge others who use this language. Let people know that this language blames survivors, excuses perpetrators, and perpetuates violence. If you have the emotional capacity, offer to help them learn. Make your personal online space a place where this language is not tolerated, and where folks who use it are not comfortable.

A Cultural Shift

Because the normalization of rape culture is so ingrained in our language, it may feel like an uphill battle to challenge it and to change the culture. But it can be done. “In a rape culture both men and women assume that sexual violence is a fact of life, inevitable,” Emilie Buchwald writes, “However . . . much of what we accept as inevitable is in fact the expression of values and attitudes that can change.”

DiBella agrees that change is possible, and absolutely necessary. If we don’t work on change, she says, “we’ll keep on learning to live with it, as if it’s normal, and we’ll joke about it and pretend it’s not so bad, as we’ve always done.”

“Just as individual survivors of sexual trauma must embark on an intentional healing journey… so must we as a society,” she concludes. “Rape culture is a problem because it keeps us all from being free.”

References

  1. Key Terms and Phrases | RAINN. Key Terms and Phrases | RAINN. https://www.rainn.org/articles/key-terms-and-phrases.
  2. Connell N, Wilson C. Rape: the First Sourcebook for Women. New York: New American library; 1974.
  3. R. FP, Buchwald E, Roth M. Transforming a Rape Culture. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions; 2005.
  4. Scope of the Problem: Statistics | RAINN org/statistics/scope-problem
  5. Toxic Twitter – Women’s Experiences of Violence and Abuse on Twitter. https://ift.tt/2LzvKrm.
  6. Suarez E, Gadalla TM. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2010;25(11):2010-2035.
  7. Berkowitz AD. Fostering men’s responsibility for preventing sexual assault. In: Schewe PA, ed. Preventing Violence in Relationships: Interventions across the Life Span. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2002:163-196.
  8. Bou-Franch P, “Did he really rape these bitches?” Exploring Language Aggression against Women, Benjamins Current Topics, 2016:1-14.

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GGS Spotlight: Dr. Shante Cofield a.k.a. The Movement Maestro

Name: Dr. Shante Cofield a.k.a The Movement Maestro
Age:  33
Location: Redondo Beach, CA

What does it mean to you to be part of the GGS Community?
I’ve always subscribed to the mantra you don’t attract what you want, you attract what you are. I am strong. Those around me are strong. Together, we’re a force of nature.

How long have you been strength training, and how did you get started?
I’ve been an athlete my entire life but found the gym when I was 15, after tearing my ACL. My mom signed me up at the local YMCA, got me a trainer, and I’d lean my crutches against the machines and hobble around. I’ve never looked back.

What does your typical workout look like?
Depends on my mood, depends on the day. As it relates to lifting, for the past few years my attention has been held by CrossFit. The beauty of that paradigm lying in its versatility and variability. Some days I focus more on bodyweight and gymnastics training. Other days are more strength biased. And other days have a more metabolic conditioning focus. No matter what the theme of the day, the focus is always on moving well.

Favorite lift:
Power clean.

Most memorable PR:
Getting my first bar muscle-up.

Do you prefer to train alone or with others? Why?
Again, it depends on my mood. Sometimes it’s nice to crank up the tunes, listen to my body, and do what I need for me. Other days it’s great to throw down with friends.

Top 3 things you must have at the gym or in your gym bag:
Confidence, perseverance, grit. Yes, those are my official answers.

You don’t need fancy equipment or gear to have a good workout. Everything you need, you already have.

Top 5 songs on your training playlist:
I’m a country music junkie who hates Spotify and making playlists. Gimme a good country station and I’m a happy kid.

Most embarrassing gym moment:
Honestly, I don’t love this question. I haven’t had any embarrassing moments at the gym, not because I’m some infallible human, but because it’s a fun, safe environment. A bunch of funny sh*t has happened, but nothing I’d say is embarrassing. It’s the gym. Have fun. Be light. Smile. Enjoy the moment. Celebrate your movement and stop taking yourself so seriously.

Most memorable compliment you’ve received lately:
“Thank you for being willing to put yourself out there every single day and reminding us all to be better therapists, better people, and better at chasing our own happiness.”

Most recent compliment you gave someone else:
“I’m proud of you.”

Taking leaps is scary. The decision to make moves can paralyze people. A good friend of mine recently made the decision to protect her happiness, even if that meant leaving the safety of her current job. Choices like that take guts, and I’m proud beyond measure.

Favorite meal: 
The tears of my enemies. Or a good burger. Never been one to turn down a good burger.

Favorite way to treat yourself:
Gadgets and electronics. One can never have too many toys!

Favorite quote:
Go as far as you can see, and when you get there you’ll see farther.

Favorite book:
The Alchemist, by Paulo Coelho

What inspires and motivates you? 
Lighting a fire in other people and watching them realize just how powerful they truly are and how much potential they truly have.

What do you do?
I live my best life. I’m a physical therapist turned entrepreneur, dedicated to helping movement professionals find their passion and turn it into profit.

About three years ago I left the beaten path, took a job with RockTape, and never looked back. I travel the country teaching continuing education courses for RockTape, on subjects including kinesiology taping, Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM), but honestly… they’re about movement. All about movement.

I still treat, but my focus is on assessment and guidance. The majority of my patients come from social media, looking for a different approach to whatever it is that ails them. I typically see patients once every few weeks, with the emphasis being on them doing their stuff and creating their own changes. I don’t fix, I facilitate.

I also spend a ton of time on social media and podcasting. Life is all about connection, and these platforms are incredible when it comes to meeting new people and forming ties.

My overall message is that happiness is for everyone, and I look to show this to others, not just in how I live my life, but by showcasing, and subsequently connecting, folks who have taken the metaphorical leap and are anywhere along that incredible journey.

I want to inspire folks to live their best lives, and help facilitate this process for them in any way possible.

Describe a typical day in your life:
Going to have to default to my favorite answer: it depends.

I truly am living my best life and have a tremendous amount of flexibility and variability within my schedule.

If I’m home, I’ll go to the gym for about two hours whenever fits best in my schedule. If I need sun, I’ll go to the beach. If I need to relax, I’ll drive my Jeep with the top off. If I need to work, I’ll do so during the hours that make the most sense based on the task, and what time zone folks I’m working with are in.

If I’m traveling for work, I’m spending my days on planes, in airports, in hotels, but most importantly, meeting new people.

I subscribe to the mantra “create every day” and as such, the majority of my “free” time is spent making things like podcasts, videos, and graphics… and I wouldn’t have it any other way.

Your next training goal:
Getting stronger as it relates to bodyweight movements.

Of what life accomplishment do you feel most proud?
Being able to pay for my youngest brother’s gym membership. Doing this was special to me on so many levels. I got to help my brother enjoy something that has brought me such joy, and something that he has quickly become so passionate about.

Having the financial means to help him was likely only possible because of that leap I took three years ago, and thus, that moment seemed to me like the universe giving me a high five and letting me know I made the right choice.

Lead with light, lead with service, be fearless in the pursuit of what sets your soul on fire.

Which three words best describe you?
“I’m the Maestro.”

Really though, I’ve worked for the past four years to build a brand, The Movement Maestro, and it stands for everything I believe in, everything I strive to be, everything I hope to become. Drive, authenticity, passion, grit, kindness, determination, leading with light, leading by example, abundance, pursuing ones happiness, just to name a few. These words embody my brand, these words describe me, and so, I answer: I’m the Maestro.

What’s a risk you’ve taken recently, and how did it turn out?
I recently had to confront a colleague about what I believed to be practices that were not in line with leading with light. Honestly, I can’t say that she completely changed her trajectory and changed her actions, but, given the circumstances it would have been hugely remiss for me to say nothing.

Sometimes, taking a chance and standing up for what you believe in doesn’t yield life-altering outcomes, but staying true to your values is something that will always have a favorable result.

How has lifting weights changed your life? 
As you gain the ability to control your body, you realize you have the ability to control your life. As I got stronger and found myself capable of performing more and more physical tasks, I realized just how limitless my potential was for my life, and that happiness truly was mine for the making.

What’s the coolest “side effect” you’ve experienced from strength training?
Bigger biceps and more self-confidence.

What do you want to say to other women who might be nervous or hesitant about strength training?
Movement is absolutely the best medicine we have.

You will never, and I mean never, regret getting strong.

Human physical achievement speaks to so much more than physical capacity and capability. It speaks to mindset, to dedication, to perseverance, to courage, to heart. It’s a physical representation of that person’s soul.

You are already stronger and more powerful than you know… than you could imagine. Strength training simply helps to open your eyes to it.

You can find out more about Shante on her website and Maestro on the Mic podcast, and connect with her on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube.

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General Exercise Guidelines

woman training with supplements for beginnersExercise is for EVERY body. This motto shows up in various places you visit that talks about physical fitness, and for a right reason. Exercise is a key factor in maintaining and enhancing overall health. In 1996, the Surgeon General of the United States reported that “significant health benefits can be gotten with a moderate amount of physical activity, ideally every day.”

In 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans provides science-based direction to help people with handicaps( aged around 6 and older) to  established and enhance their health through fitting physical activity.

These benefits are much more imperative if you have a disability, since people with inabilities tend to live less dynamic lifestyles. However, it is similarly as critical for your body to get exercise. This fact sheet provides some general exercise guidelines you should review.

All through this site are resources on physical activity and exercise programs of various types: indoor and outdoor, sports or recreational, solitary or team. It doesn’t make a difference what you pick, inasmuch as you get a moderate amount of physical activity every day.

Unique Fitness Programs for Persons with Disabilities

Notwithstanding the health benefits, physical activity can be one of the most ideal approaches to create teamwork, confidence, and advance fun. For those without disabilities, the basic response for executing a fitness routine is to go to the nearby exercise center or join a fitness class; however for those with ha, this activity is not all that basic.

Theotis Braddy of The Center for Independent Living of Central Pennsylvania (CILCP) comprehends the test. As the Executive Director of one of the main completely available fitness habitats for people living with handicaps in Pennsylvania (CILCP) he remarks, “Fitness focuses ordinarily convey next to no or no exercise gear that a man with a disability can utilize.”

Braddy has been driving the inside since 2008 and has turned into a solid backer for those with incapacities. Braddy realizes that it resembles to experience a disability since he has done as such firsthand. After a secondary school football mischance, he turned into a man with a disability. “We trust that paying little heed to a man’s disability or restrictions, he or she can take part in some type of conditioning or wellness program.”

CILCP’s Living Well Fitness Center, not just offers a wide variety of hardware that can be gotten to by those with handicaps, additionally offers classes and has gotten acknowledgment for the endeavors.

What Types of Exercises Are Recommended If You Have Limited Mobility?

For one thing, what sorts of exercises can a man with limited versatility really do? As noted in an incredible article1 by HelpGuide.org, even those with serious restrictions in their portability ought to consider consolidating the accompanying sorts of exercises.

Cardiovascular exercises.

This incorporates any development that raises your heart rate and increases endurance. If you can’t stand, water exercises can be a choice.

In any case, regardless of the possibility that you’re restricted to a wheelchair, there are approaches to get a cardiovascular exercise. The video included at the very end of this article demonstrates exactly how dynamic a wheelchair-bound individual can be, provided you’re not additionally restricted by age and slightness.

Strength training exercises.

This includes strengthening your muscles and bones utilizing weights or other resistance-sort exercises. Strength training is critical for enhancing equalization and stability.

If you have limited lower body portability, you can even now perform exercises to strengthen your upper body, including your center, back, arms, and shoulders. Provided you’re not paralyzed, you can likewise strengthen your lower furthest points with seated exercises.

Flexibility exercises

are essential for range of movement, and can help reduce pain and stiffness. These may incorporate extending exercises, either seated or on the floor, and chair yoga. Kendo can likewise be modified and adjusted to be done while seated.

If your versatility is limited because of outrageous fatigue or a painful condition, for example, rheumatoid joint inflammation, please realize that both oxygen consuming and strength training exercises can be extremely helpful for such conditions.2

“Despite the fact that patients might be worried that exercise will energize joint weakening or cause increased pain, the experience of members in one examination uncovers that exercise programs outlined specifically for RA patients don’t increase illness activity …

The data assembled to date demonstrates that ‘there is a demonstrated direct benefit from exercise to joint health and an aberrant benefit to patients identified with cardiovascular, weight loss, and overall mental and physical health.'”

9 Dicas Dara Escolher a Melhor Empresa de Criação de Sites

web design1As empresas de desenvolvimento web têm um papel maior em impulsionar a marca da empresa e a sua reputação on-line. Em poucas palavras, a conquista de um novo negócio online depende da experiência dos programadores web. Um número crescente de clientes está se voltando para a internet para obter informações sobre os produtos e serviços fornecidos por uma marca específica.

Muitas empresas de web design estão disponíveis para criar um site para sua empresa de acordo com o orçamento que você tem. No entanto, apenas uma empresa profissional de desenvolvimento web pode entender dos requisitos do cliente em vez de comprometer apenas seus objetivos de curto prazo. Muitas pesquisas devem ocorrer antes de escolher a empresa ideal de design e desenvolvimento de sites.

O uso de parceiros de desenvolvimento incorretos vai levar a consequências a longo prazo que podem prejudicar a reputação da sua marca.

Aqui estão algumas sugestões que podem permitir selecionar a melhor empresa de criação de sites no Rio de Janeiro.

Eles são acessíveis?

Este é um aspecto significativo na escolha da empresa de desenvolvimento web ideal. Você precisará verificar se a empresa de desenvolvimento é séria sobre seu atendimento. Se eles estão fazendo atrasos na resposta às suas perguntas; antes de estabelecer um contrato em conjunto, é necessário que você os evite porque sua capacidade de resposta a longo prazo quando o site lança não pode ser garantida de forma alguma.

Eles têm um conselheiro para informá-lo?

As empresas que oferecem serviços de criação de sites premium podem ter consultores que tentarão entender suas necessidades e irão notificá-lo se você precisar fazer modificações no design e operação do site que você está considerando ter. Geralmente, quando a concepção deste site não coincide com todos os serviços que você fornece, pode ser um desperdício de dinheiro.

Um consultor poderá ajudá-lo a limpar essa barreira antes do início do próprio processo de desenvolvimento web. A Web no Rio – Criação de sites RJ, conta com pessoas para atendimento imediato com alto conhecimento de Marketing para te ajudar na tomada de decisões.

Dê uma olhada no próprio site da empresa de desenvolvimento web

A maioria das empresas de design web mostra seu próprio site para atrair clientes para eles. Se o seu site não é atraente, então, como eles tornam seu site atraente?

A empresa de desenvolvimento web pode fornecer sugestões periódicas?

Eles frequentemente o ajudam como um guia confiável, enfatizando que alguns de seus pensamentos são inadequados e terão as explicações para apoiar isso. É necessário que a maioria das empresas de design de sites próximas possua um conhecimento abrangente sobre as mudanças que ocorrem através dos padrões da internet, do comércio eletrônico e padrões de segurança, padrões da web e encontros de usabilidade.

Veja os projetos completos precedentes

É vital para o cliente dar uma olhada nos outros trabalhos realizados pela empresa de desenvolvimento web que está se aproximando e deve poder conversar com essas empresas para obter feedback sobre a empresa de desenvolvimento web.

Como o suporte pós-venda é tratado?

Esse é um dos lugares onde muitas empresas se sentem frustradas às vezes com sua empresa de desenvolvimento web. O motivo é a ausência de entusiasmo para ajudar a empresa depois que o trabalho é concluído.

A empresa de desenvolvimento de sites ideal participaria de uma associação de longo prazo com o cliente oferecendo serviços contínuos ininterruptos para eles em relação à manutenção do site.

Tudo sobre processo de criação de sites

Isso é mais do que uma pessoa de marketing, o procedimento começa com a criação de uma primeira estratégia, preparação, design, desenvolvimento, testes, além de marketing.

É a pessoa técnica que será útil para a fase de desenvolvimento do seu site. Um grupo de web designers e programadores da Web está envolvido nos estágios de desenvolvimento do seu site, e é só eles que terão a capacidade de conhecer as suas necessidades melhores assim que vier a criar, além de conceitos técnicos.

A maioria dos negócios de desenvolvimento de sites possui o código do site porque eles esperam que o cliente os aborde no futuro, mesmo que sejam feitas alterações. Mas verifique se sua empresa vai se sentir confortável com esses tipos de limitações.

A empresa de desenvolvimento do site do cliente pode fazer as mudanças prontamente porque tem experiência prática fazendo seu site, enquanto que se você possui o código do site, você terá a liberdade de fazer qualquer modificação. No entanto, a tarefa pode ser um pouco difícil para a divisão de TI porque o código foi desenvolvido pela empresa de criação do site do cliente.

A Web No Rio – Criação de Sites SP – São Paulo está ativamente postando artigos em seu blog, na qual ajuda os seus clientes ao receber melhores informações.

A maioria dos negócios do cliente está se movendo para a criação de um programa móvel para seus bens e serviços, bem como para seus serviços de criação de sites RJ no Rio de Janeiro porque a grande maioria dos clientes hoje utiliza smartphones para compras on-line.